Department of geochemistry of deep-seated fluids
Head of the department ‑ D. Sc. Ihor Naumko
Department of geochemistry of the deep-seated fluids was created in 1951, at the same time when the Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Akademy of Sciences of Ukraine (till 1963 – Institute of Geology of Useful Minerals of Akademy of Sciences of Ukrainian SSR) itself was established.
- S. Sobolyev, Ye. K. Lazarenko, V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, M. V. Davydenko, I. M. Naumko were headed a department in different years. While the demands of national economy and scientific profile of Institute were changing, the department’s title and directors also changed: from 1951 till 1953 – the department of petrography and mineralogy (V.S. Sobolyev); from 1954 till 1958 – the department of petrography and mineralogy (V. S. Sobolyev and Ye. K. Lasarenko); from 1958 till 1960 – the department of ore mineral resources (Ye. K. Lazarenko); from 1961 till 1967 – the department of geochemistry of rare and dissipated elements of oil gas-bearing and coal-holding sediments (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi); from 1967 up to today – the department of geochemistry of the deep-seated fluids (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, 1967–1988; M. M. Davydenko, 1989–1993; I. M. Naumko, 1994–up to today).
There are 12 employees working at the department, among their number 6 research workers, including 1 Doctor of Sciences (Geology) and 3 Candidates of Sciences (PhD Philosophy). Thermometric and cryometric, mass-spectrometric chemical and laser-microspectral laboratories, the Сentre of collective use of scientific instruments “Gas chromatography of fluids of geological objects” of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine are functioning at the department.
Scientific and science-organizing activity of the department of geochemistry of deep-seated fluids realize in accordance with a scientific direction of the department confirmed by the Academic Council of the Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine on December 20, 1999, protocol No. 12: “Thermobarometry and geochemistry of paleofluids in the environment of the mineral formation and sedimentation in lithosphere of combustible mineral provinces of the Ukraine (based on fluid inclusions in minerals)” within the framework of main scientific researches of the Institute, corrected in accordance with the Resolution No 117 of March 30, 2011 adopted by the Presidium of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine, in particular “Geochemistry, thermobarometry of fluids of mineral-forming environment” and appointed concrete research tasks on the plane of scientific of the Institute, namely:
– determination of composition, physical-chemical properties, genesis of fluids of the upper mantle and the earth’s crust and their role in the formation of the hydrocarbon and ore fields;
– reconstruction of PTX-conditions of the formation of hydrothermal-katagenic mineralization of veinlet-impregnated type in the sedimentary strata of the oil-gas-bearing provinces for evaluation of prospects for oil-gas presence in the geological sections and local areas;
– studying of mineral transformations in the coal-bearing deposits with participation of methane-aqueous fluids and methane of fluid inclusions as one of the forms of occurrence of this accompanied (independent) useful mineral in the gas-coal fields;
– research of the state and composition of the mineral-forming fluids in paragenic associations of mineragenic provinces of the Carpathian region.
Many theoretical and practical questions were answered by the Department’s staff due to many years systematical purposeful investigations of geochemistry and thermobarometry of deep-seatеd fluids of the Earht’s lithosphere (on the basis of complex precision investigations of inclusions in minerals, mineral parageneses and typomorphic indicators of minerals of rock-ore complexes).
The most significant fundamental and applied results are as follows.
On the basis of crystalogenetic and physico-chemical principles the theoretical and methodical bases of the knowledge about mineral-forming fluids (thermobarogeochemistry–mineralfluidology–fluid inclusions research) has been worked out. These investigations were on priority in past Soviet Union and continued beeing in Ukraine owing to works of the Department’s staff with the Government Prize laureate, Prof. V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, who was of the International gold medal in the name of G. Sorby on award. In connection with this the creation of Ukrainian association of fluid inclusion researchers in 1993 on the Department’s base was very logical.
Hydrogen absence in fluid inclusions was confirmed and real sources of its origin at crystal destruction were detected for the first time using the applied mass-spectrometric plant that does not have anologues in world practice, thereby the significant contribution in solution of the problem of hydrogen geochemistry in geological processes were made (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, Yo. M. Svoren’, B. Е. Sakhno).
Geochemical evolution model of postmagmatic process for granite pegmatites of cavity (chambered) type is created. The common regularity of pegmatite, granite formation at the average depths, in part granites under greisenization, is identified, that is periodicity of a change for acid-base fluid properties (according to pH value) against a background of regular temperature decreasing and corresponding mineral paragenesisses (mineral associations). The optimal regimes of conditioned piezoquartz and jewel raw materials of pegmatites are stated, new criteria of its quality estimation in process of pegmatite bodies mining are proposed. Zonal gas (CO2, CH4, N2) aureoles are stated, which permit expecting to be detected, that is the endogeno-carbon dioxide method based on the indicatore CO2 role for localization of piezoquartz, gem-stones, rare metals (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, D. K. Voznyak, Z. I. Kovalyshyn, M. D. Bratus’, H. M. Gigashvili, O. D. Matviyenko, O. M. Vynar, B. Н. Remeshylo, I. M. Naumko). Complex of these investigations as fundamental one in the branch of theoretical and regional mineralogy was decorated with State Ukrainian Prize in the branch of science and technics (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, 1983).
The regular periodicity in activity of gold-polymetallic-rare metals manifestations stipulated by change of aggregate state, composition and thermobarical parameters of crystalization medium, and on the basis of this the concrete salt and gas percentage, temperature and pressure ranges during the formation of gold-polimetallic, mercury deposits and magmatic rocks of Transcarpathia (Z. I. Kovalyshyn, M. D. Bratus’, I. M. Naumko, B. V. Zatsikha, E. L. Рlatonova, B. D. Zhovtulya, M. O. Vityk, N. M. Sayko), gold-polymetallic deposits of Donbas (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, I. M. Zinchuk), rare metal- and gold-mineralization of Ukrainian Shield (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, O. M. Vynar, O. D. Matviуenko, M. D. Bratus’, I. M. Naumko, N. E. Libersbakh) as well as carbon, oxygen isotope origin of CO2, hydrogen of H2O and the other compounds of fluids that formed these deposits. In part, for Beregovo ore region of Transcarpathia the temperature ranges of accumulation and ore extension depth are determined; it was confirmed that processes of boiling and mixing of different by origin solutions were the main factors of gold concentration. Space zonality of hydrocarbon-aqueous and carbon dioxide-aqueous fluids of ore hydrothermalites and the transitional zone of Dniprovo-Donetsk depression is identified. The important role of hydrocarbon compounds, first of all CH4, at very low percantage of CO2 comparing with classical hydrothermal vein deposits is stated (M. D. Bratus’, M. M. Davydenko). It has been found the typomorphical characters and genetical connection between vein and stratiform fluorite manifestations of Bakhtyn ore field (PreDnistrovya) (O. D. Matviуenko).
The mentioned materials underlie separation of two branches of geochemical (mineragenetic) specialization of mineral (ore)-forming fluids: while very high amount of CO2 and the significant percantage of CH4 are present: рolymetallic and gold manifestations mainly connected to the carbon dioxide-aqueous fluids and some genetical types of gold-bearing mineralization as well as carbon dioxide, oil-gas formations connected to carbon dioxide-methane-aqueous ones (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, O. M. Vynar, I. M. Zinchuk, Z. I. Kovalyshyn, O. D. Matviyenko, I. M. Naumko, Yo. M. Svoren’). А new technology of local prediction of promising areas among gold ore field is proposed (Yo. M. Svoren’, I. M. Naumko, V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, Z. I. Kovalyshyn, M. D. Bratus’, M. M. Davydenko).
Geochemical peculiarities of hydrocarbon compounds of fluid inclusions in minerals were investigated on the example of vein hydrothermalites of Volyno-Podilya, Ukrainian Carpathians, Crime, and Turkmenystan, of convulsions of mud volcanos of Kerchenskyi and Tamanskyi Peninsulas.
Proceeding from the data of fluid inclusions research and ontogenetic observations the catagenetic mineralogenesis stages in sedimentary series of Lviv Paleozoic depression, first of all within Belz-Mylyatyn fracture is recreated. The elements as vertical zonality (higher amount of light hydrocarbon components at large depths and enrichment of heavy hydrocarbon components at lower depths) against a backdround of regular temperature increasing of mineralogenesis with depth as well as lateral zonality, that is a change of the composition of fluids from oil through gas condensate to essentially methane ones in the direction from the north west to the south east within the investigated area are determined (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, H. M. Gigashvili, I. M. Zinchuk, I. M. Naumko, E. L. Platonova). Using fluid inclusions studies in quartz crystals of type “marmarosh diamonds” from hydrothermal veins the regular consistency of a change for composition and PT-parameters of hydrocarbon hydrothermal fluid migration on the south-west slope of Ukrainian Carpathians are discovered: in time – from methane-aqueous (240–200 °С, 300–50MPa) to oil-methane-aqueous (170–80 °С, 50 MPa) and in space (by maximum values) – from 210–225 °С and 80–100 MPa at the south-east and to 230–240 °С, 300 MPa at the north-west (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, M. D. Bratus’, I. V. Dudok, M. O. Vityk, C. B. Lomov). Liquid CO2 and the light hydrocarbons of gaseous condensate type (ethane, propane) are detected for the first time that indicates hydrocarbon deposit probability in the region (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, B. E. Sakhno). Methane inclusions of high density and the inclusions of liquid hydrocarbons in calcite from mud volcano convulsions are also stated for the first time and the thermodynamical parameters of deep centres of mud volcanism with participation of hydrocarbon compounds are calculated (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, L. F. Telepko).
The data about composition and PT-parameters of fluids among subcrustal and mantle areas are obtained from fluid inclusions and gas impurities in magmatic rocks of hypogene genesis: tholeiites of underwater oceanic eruption, potentially diamondiferous alkaline basaltoids of Central Asia, kimberlites of Yakutiya (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, M. D. Bratus’, I. M. Zinchuk, L. R. Red’ko, Yo. M. Svoren’, B. E. Sakhno, O. S. Kruglov). For the first time it is proved that volatile components of basaltic (tholeiitic) lavas of rift zones of World Ocean consist only from CO2 (without taking no notice of H2O and insignificant rare N2 impurities), its carbon isotope composition corresponds to mantle one (H P. Mamchur, Yo. M. Svoren’, V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, I. M. Naumko). It is testified to some special role of CO2 in the processes occurred at large depths in lithosphere. The last conclusion is proved per se by constant quantitative prevalence of CO2 in basalts of mantle genesis and kimberlite minerals. Using fluid inclusions in mineral studies it is stated that the development of ultrabasic and basic magmatism of alcaline line is accompanied by intensive degasification of CO2 at the presence of very low amount of carbon reduction compounds. Carbon dioxide is also the main component of volatile impurities in diamond and accomponied minerals. The obtained by the Department’s researchers data about endogene mineralogenesis and modern theoretical preconditions permit expecting ranges of prediction of diamond deposits as well as of non-kimberlite type to be extended.
A few perspective directions of using of fluid inclusions in mineral studies are outlined for investigations of sedimentary and volcanic sedimentary series, which hold hydrocarbon deposits within contemporary provinces of combustible minerals, that is a reconstruction of PTX-parameters of catagenetic and hydrothermal mineralogenesis, determination of relative time of jointing origin, separation and correlation non-characterized paleontologically layers, allocation of marking stratigraphic horizonts, determination of original sources of the important typomorphical minerals and mineral associations, identification of the directions of detrital material removal and establishment of its space-genetic connection with hypothetical host rocks.
Recently the efforts of the Department’s staff concentrate on the research of PTX-parameters of post-sedimentary veinlet-impregnated mineralization of hydrothermal-catagenic origin in sedimentary series of oil- and gas-bearing provinces of Ukraine (I. M. Naumko, V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, M. D. Bratus’, I. M. Zinchuk, Z. I. Kovalyshyn, O. D. Matviyenko, L. R. Red’ko, Yo. M. Svoren’). This work succeeded in reconstruction of typical features of fluid regime of catagenic-hydrothermal process and obtaining new data about migration of deep paleofluids and their influence in the neighbourhood of oil deposits on the forming of peculiar thermobaric and geochemical aureoles, caught in the fluid inclusions in the minerals of veinlets and impregnations, and also spatially and chronologically close or even the same ways of migration of hydrocarbon-aqueous (oil-aqueous) fluids, related to oil and gas deposits, and metal-bearing (carbon dioxide-aqueous or methane- carbon dioxide-aqueous) fluids – mostly ore manifestations of polymetals, antimony, arsenic. The obtained data confirm that the gas contents value, variety level and element contents of hydrocarbons of fluid inclusions in veinlets (carbonate, quartz-carbonate etc.) minerals in the upper and lateral parts of hydrocarbon deposits directly relate to the genesis and origin of hydrocarbon-holding fluids that migrated through the rocks, at the same time forming veinlets or postsedimentally changing the host rocks (showing the cement recrystallization and regeneration of fragmented grains) and also to the grade their storage and preservation in host rocks. These values are ten times and more higher than values resulting from analysis of host rocks from the deposit vicinities.
In part, the research of sedimentкн strata of Carpathian oil-gas-bearing province showed that veinlet-impregnated mineralization after the through-cut of wells in the neighbourhood of the existing hydrocarbon deposits is characterized by high values of relative gas contents of mineral-forming fluid, which often correlates with its water contents, and sufficient contents of saturated hydrocarbons (first of all, methane, ethane, propane) in the gas phase comparing to the background values (I. M. Naumko, Z. I. Kovalyshyn, Yo. M. Svoren’, B. E. Sakhno, L. F. Telepko). The detected regularities, like the increased contents of carbon dioxide and other gases of fluid inclusion in minerals around piezoquartz and rare metal pegmatites and also some gold-bearing hydrothermal veins, can be regarded as favourable search and evaluation regional and local criteria of areas prospective with respect to oil and gas presence.
The knowledge of thermobarometry and geochemistry of gases of veinlet-impregnated mineralization of catagenic-hydrothermal origin in the sediments of oil- gas-bearing areas forms the basis of endogenic-methane (endogenic-hydrocarbon) method of search of oil-gas deposits, in the frame of which a new technology of determining prospectiveness with respect to oil and gas presence of local area (Yo. M. Svoren’, I. M. Naumko, M. M. Davydenko) and a new technology of determining the genesis of hydrocarbon gases (Yo. M. Svoren’, I. M. Naumko) are proposed, and also preconditions for oil-gas presence forecast by thermobarogeochemical parameters (I. M. Naumko, Yo. M. Svoren’, Z. I. Kovalyshyn) are detected.
Thus, typomorphical features of postsedimentegenous veinlet-imregnated mineralization of sedimentary oil-gas-bearing strata, reconstructed by the fluid inclusions, are proposed as an important criterion of oil and gas prospectiveness of geological profile, which will give more reliable ground for search and exploring works.
Two trends of evolution of the composition of the hydrocarbon systems were detalizited in the sedimentary strata of the L´viv Paleozoic deep: a) transformation in the conditions of partly open heterogeneous system due to loss of volatile components, first of all methane, into oil-like mixture with the parallel destruction of their part with formation of the bitumen-like fluids and solid bitumens in the near-surface conditions (elements of time evolution and vertical zonality); b) substitution of the oil-like mixtures by the light mainly methane fluids (elements of lateral zonality) (I. M. Zinchuk, I. M. Naumko, V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, B. E. Sakhno).
Was determined significant similarity and, to a considerable extent, inherited composition of the fluid inclusion in the katagenic veinlet minerals near by the oil-gas deposits of the Carpathian oil- and gas-bearing provinces and the data characterizing the relationship between the volatile components of the natural gases and dissolved in the formation waters from the fields actually that is of great genetic and applied importance (I. M. Naumko, Z. I. Kovalyshyn, M. D. Bratus’, Yu. A. Belets’ka, L. F. Telepko).
It was established that postsedimentigenic changes in the rock complexes in areas of predicted or proved by the oil and gas presence in the Northern Black Sea area occurred under influence of the deep-seated hydrocarbon-containing fluids within the limits of subvertical fluid-conducting structures in which methane widened to a great extent the area of heterogenization of fluids and their division in considerably aqueous-salty and enriched with hydrocarbons phases (I. M. Naumko, I. M. Zinchuk, M. D. Bratus’).
Thermobaric and geochemical parameters of the mineral-forming fluids of the main gold-polymetallic fields and ore shows of the Nagolny ore region and adjacent geological structures of Central Donets´ Basin were reconstructed as well as a distinct zonality of the territorial distribution of the parameters of mineral formation and stable isotopes of carbon in the region (I. M. Zinchuk).
New dualistic (abiogenic-biogenic) conception of synthesis and genesis of natural hydrocarbons was developed and substantiated according to which giant and over-giant fields of oil and gas were formed from inorganic and organic initial hydrocarbon-containing compounds in the Earth’s lithosphere under the influence of the deep-seated high-temperature fluid: principal, basic and important source of both powerful tectonogenic energy and sufficient volumes of initial components (hydrogen and carbon) for hydrocarbon synthesis in its surroundings (Yo. M. Svoren’, I. M. Naumko).
Fluid regime of mineralogenesis of the rock-ore complexes of the Ukraine’s lithosphere was reconstructed as well as the data were obtained concerning the migration of the deep-seated fluids and their influence upon the postsedimentogenic transformations of sedimentary thickness containing the deposits of hydrocarbon and ore materials (I. M. Naumko).
It was shown that Earth’s bowels are both a powerful source of initial substances and a high-energy natural physical-chemical reactor in which the majority of useful minerals is synthesized and formed that was taken as a basis of the new scientific trend in geology – “The bowels of the Earth – natural high-energy physical-chemical reactor” (Yo. M. Svoren’, I. M. Naumko).
The composition and special features of the space-time distribution of the gaseous phase of fluids of metamorphogenic-metasomatic minerogenesis of rock-ore complexes of the north-western part of the Marmarosh massif were studied. It was confirmed that in the process of their formation and transformations there are all conditions for running processes of synthesis of hydrocarbon compounds with possible further formation of hydrocarbon deposits both in underthrust structures and in favorable structures-traps of tectonic origin (I. M. Naumko, R. A. Bondar, Yo. M. Svoren’, B. E. Sakhno, O. O. Nechepurenko).
On the example of hydrocarbon deposits of the Precarpathian Foredeep the character of conjugated processes of hydrocarbon migration and localization in sedimentary strata of overthrust-underthrust structures of the oil- and gas-bearing areas and the formation of veinlet-impregnated mineralization in the systems of healed fractures were ascertained according to the scientific trend in geology “Geochemistry and thermobarometry of gases of veinlet-impregnated mineralization in deposits of oil- and gas-bearing areas and metallogenic provinces” that is developing at the department (I. M. Naumko et. al.).
A fluid regime of mud Volcanism of the Kerch peninsula was characterized as reflection of phasing of vertical-migrational processes in the region (based on inclusions in calcite and gypsym of outbursts of mud volcanoes) (I. M. Naumko et al.).
The composition and relative gas-saturation of initial migrating fluid paleoflows were reconstructed that has formed prerequisites for drawing a diagram of migration and reconstruction of possible migration paths of fluid inflows and, correspondingly, substantiation of the possibility of fixing fluid-conductive fracture zones of increased permeability of rocks in oil and gas layers and coal-rock massifs by mineralofluidological methods (M. I. Pavlyuk, I. M. Naumko).
An abiogenic-biogenic nature of coalbed methane was determined as well as the characteristic feature of abiogenic methane-containing high-temperature fluid to transform organic remains on the coal row and the physical-chemical model was developed for the formation of coal seams from organic remains in sedimentary strata under the influence of methane-containing components of the deep-seated fluid with simultaneous forming of veinlet-impregnated mineralization and its methane-saturation (Yo. M. Svoren’, I. M. Naumko).
The role of deep-seated fluids as a determinative component of fluidal postsedimentogenic mineral-forming paleosystems with participation of methane (hydrocarbon)-aqueous fluids in the coal-rock massifs was proved (I. M. Naumko et al.).
The probable model of the formation of natural hydrocarbons in the Earth’s lithosphere in just one more principally possible way was proposed. It is grounded on the analysis and interpretation of the results of investigations executed by professor F. Freund with his group from the Köln University have reconstructed in laboratory conditions the process of synthesis of hydrocarbons at the interaction of free carbon or CO2 with water at 500–800 °С on defects of crystalline texture of MgO, accompanied by emission of free oxygen. Such a process serves as the explanation of the mechanism of using of CO2 and H2O as sources of carbon and hydrogen during hydrocarbonogenesis (M. I. Pavlyuk, I. M. Naumko, R. Н. Makitra, D. V. Bryk).
On the basis of executed generalization all minerals of silicate rank, known in the Folder Carpathians, Precarpathian and Transcarpathian Foredeeps, have been characterized: distribution, shapes of shows, morphology, chemical composition, structure, physical properties, genesis and paragenesis, in particular, of subrank of the framed structure (group of silica minerals and zeolites) (I. M. Naumko, R A. Bondar, Z. G. Matviishyn, I. T. Popp included in the author’s team of the monograph “Minerals of the Ukrainian Carpathians. Silicates”).
The compositions, sources and origin of hydrocarbons in fluid inclusions (as naturally preserved relicts of hydrocarbon-containing paleosystems) of the formations of the areas of Alpine tectogenesis of the Ukraine were investigated. It gave the chance to reconstruct thermobaric and geochemical characteristics of fluid environment of mineral crystallization and staging of both minerogenesis and migrational processes with participation of hydrocarbon compounds as a basis for development of appropriate migrational schemes of carbonaceous fluids in the Earth’s lithosphere (I. M. Naumko, Yj. M. Svoren, I. M. Zinchuk et al.).
It was established that formation of quarts vein gold-ore shows of the south-western part of the Kirovohrad block of the Ukrainian Shield occurred under the average-temperature (380–200 °С) conditions of the hydrothermal-metasomatic process. Deposition of accessory gold was stimulated by decomposition of chloraurated complex compounds in the course of heterogeneity of carbon dioxide-aqueous fluids with decrease in the temperature of solutions, increase in their alkalinity and decline in chlor-ion activity (I. M. Naumko, N. G. Sava, B. E. Sakhno, L. F. Telepko, Yu. M. Shashorin).
Analysis of firstly obtained data of chemical mass-spectrometry on methane predominance (up to 100 vol. per cent) and origination of ethane at deeper horizons (the first per cent at the expense of CH4 content) as well as of carbon dioxide and nitrogen in volatile of fluid inclusions in minerals and closed pores of argillites from Paleozoic rock complexes of the Volyn-Podillya region has enabled us to a conclusion about the availability in them of conditions for running the processes of gas-forming by means of alteration of organic material into “shale” gas absorbed and occluded by mineral and organic material at a stage of katagenesis and hence their potential for gas presence. Absence of the water steam may testify to “dryness” of hydrocarbon systems, and low values of relative gas saturation – to alteration of organic material as a source of volatile, first of all hydrocarbon, compounds at low (mainly lithostatic) pressures. At the same time, an order higher relative gas saturation of calcite of veinlets, by which subvertical fractures in argillite mass is healed, and origination of steam water indicate possible influx of deep-seated migrating paleofluids through these thick systems of jointed fractures. Probable mechanism of gas generation in porous space with further both trapping of gas in free state and its sorption by rocks with “shale” gas forming was proposed. It is based on comparison of data on composition of volatile from fluid inclusions in minerals and closed pores of perspectively gas-bearing argillites and sorption-generating processes of methane formation in coal proceeding from principal unity of nature and ways of transformation of dispersed and concentrated forms of organic material (I. M. Naumko, I. M. Kurovets, S. S. Kurovets, B. E. Sakhno, P. S. Chepusenko).
The possibility of formation of bitumenous substances – kerite and anthraxolite in pegmatites of the Ukrainian Shield and the Voronezh Massif in the course of inversion of redox-potential of fluids at pneumatolithical-hydrotermal stage of evolution of granitoid magmatism was proved that will promote both perceiving the processes of transference of metals in the complexes with organic ligands and solving the problems of the formation of ore deposits connected with carbon-containing rocks complexes (R. P. Gottikh, B. I. Pisotskiy, I. M. Naumko, K. I. Sveshnikov).
On the basis of data of isotope analysis of carbon and oxygen from carbonates of veinlets and hold rocks within the limits of the Lopushnya oil field (Ukrainian Carpathians) it was possible to show the dominant influence of deep-seated hydrocarbon-containing fluids upon the formation of veinlet-impregnated mineralization in surroundings of deposits in favour of which testifies also isotope composition of sulphur of oil from this field that is corresponding to meteorite standard (I. M. Naumko, Yu. A. Beletska, V. M. Zagnitko).
Main mineralogical-genetic and technological characteristics of rock complexes with zeolites from Ukrainian Transcarpathia (clinoptilolite) and Timan (analcime) were compared. Owing to that sorption properties of clinoptilolite turned out to be better (and as molecular sieves, for example, as to molecule of n-hexan), and its formation in Transcarpathia is connected with intensive volcanism, then this causes the necessity to search clinoptilolite layers and within Timan zeolite-bearing province too, because in the composition of analcime-containing deposits pyroclastic material is present there as well (I. M. Naumko, R. A. Bondar, Z. G. Matviishyn, O. B. Kotova, D. O. Shushkov).
Formation conditions of veinlet-impregnated mineralization in basalts of the Luchychivska series of the trappean formation in the area of junction of the Volyn Paleozoic uplift and the Volyn-Podillya monocline of the West Volyn region. Temperature interval of from 325 to 235 °С (based on primary inclusions in analcime and calcite) and predominance of nitrogen (up to 100 vol. per cent) over carbon dioxide in the gas component should be considered optimal parameters of the processes of minerogenesis that corresponds to average-temperature hydrothermal processes (mesothermal processes 200–300 °С) similar to parageneses of copper-bearing traps of Decan (India). For the first time it was possible to ascertain an important genetic significance of findings of pisolites in tuffs of the Babynska suite of the trappean formation of the north-western Volyn region as far as according to peculiarities of their distribution, it is possible to affirm about their subaqueous origin under condition of the formation within intermediate and distant zones of eruption (I. M. Naumko, N. V. Nesterovych, Yu. I. Fedoryshyn, L. F. Telepko, B. E. Sakhno).
Ha підставі виконаного узагальнення даних вивчення параґенезів мінералів, типомофних ознак мінералів і флюїдних включень у мінералах схарактеризовано процеси мінералогенезу в усіх породно-рудних комплексах Українських Карпат (І. М. Наумко І. Т. Попп у складі авторського колективу монографії “Мінерали Українських Карпат. Процеси мінералоутворення”).
On the basis of developed new theory of synthesis and genesis of natural hydrocarbons and new model of hydrocarbongenesis in the Earth’s lithosphere as the grounds for new fundamental knowledge of the peculiarities of the distribution of useful minerals in the earth’s crust and technology of their extraction it became possible to substantiate and to select optimal parameters of complex development of gas-coal fields with the help of continuos flow process technologies of high-speed drilling that acquire indisputable advantages compared with other innovation projects, because it contributes to import substitution of energy resources for own reserves of gas-methane, repays the investment in the course of a year, ensures new working places, extends prospects for cost-effective increase in coal production and ensures appropriate level of safety of underground work (I. M. Naumko et al.).
Head of the department, D. Sc. I. M. Naumko was included into group of pretenders to the work “Complex development of gas-coal field based on continuos flow process technologies of drilling” nominated by the Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine for the State Prize of Ukraine in the field of science and technics in 2014.
On the basis of theoretical and methodical principles of the knowledge about the mineral-forming fluids in the development of the scientific direction in geology, thermobarometry and geochemistry of gases of veinlet-impregnated mineralization in the deposits of oil-gas-bearing areas and metallogenic provinces the foundation of new solution of the problem of the development of prospecting technologies-methods of non-traditional type was laid that foresees their creation and realization based on them actually prospecting for useful minerals simultaneously with solving the problem of their genesis and synthesis at the atom-molecular level fixed by defects in the mineral crystals, first of all fluid inclusions.
Developed and approved new technologies-methods of such plan belongs to the field of the prospecting geology and geochemistry and is used for solving of the genetic questions, mineralogical-geochemical prediction and prospecting for pools (deposits) of the useful minerals in the local structures of the oil- and gas-bearing regions and metallogenic provinces, namely:
– determination of hydrocarbon gas genesis (Yo. M. Svoren’, I. M. Naumko);
– determination of prospecting for oil and gas presence in the local area (Yo. M. Svoren’, I. M. Naumko, M. M. Davydenko);
– local forecast of enriched areas of gold ore fields (Yo. M. Svoren’, V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, I. M. Naumko, Z. I. Kovalyshyn, M. A. Bratus’, M. M. Davydenko);
– express determination of potassium in the inclusions for identification of enriched with gold and barren vein formations (Z. I. Kovalyshyn, I. M. Naumko, V. M. Kovalevych).
Scientific and technical cooperation was carried out by means of practical study of the employees of the department at the leading scientific centers of Europe (an engineer N. M. Saiko at the Institute of Geological Sciences of the University in Leoben city (Austria) in 2000) and by participation in the international scientific conferences. Direct scientific contacts were established with the M. Semenenko Institute of Geochemistry, Mineralogy and Ore Formation of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Kyiv), the M. Polyakov Institute of Geotechnical Mechanics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Dnipropetrovs´k), the Ukrainian State Research and Design Institute of Mining Geology, Geomechanics and Mine-Surveyor Affair of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (Donets´k), the Institute of Problem of Oil and Gas of Russian Academy of Sciences (Moscow).
In 1993, on the base of the department was founded the Ukrainian Association of Researchers of Fluid Inclusions, then it was accepted to the European Association of Researchers of Fluid Inclusions.
Еmployees of the department became the authors and co-authors of 32 monographs, many papers in scientific publications works, materials and theses of numerous international scientific conferences, 3 dissertations for a doctor’s degree (Doctor of Sciences (Geology)) and 20 dissertations for a candidate’s degree (Candidates of Sciences (PhD Philosophy)) were defended.
Rewardings at international, state and departmental levels:
– State Prize of Ukraine in the field of science and technics (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, 1983);
– The Y. Sorbi International Gold medal (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, 1993);
– State Grant for outstanding Scientists (V. A. Kalyuzhnyi, 1998);
– Honorary Diploma of the Presidium of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine (I. M. Naumko, 2001, 2011; L. R. Red’ko, 2007);
– The V. I. Luchytsky Medal (I. M. Naumko, 2001);
– The Silver Badge of the Association of Ukrainian Geologists (I. M. Naumko, 2006);
– The Academician Lazarenko E.K. Grant for Young Scientists (R. A. Bondar, 2012).
The mentioned main results of fundamental and applied significance were obtained with the support from several specialized laboratories, which have functioned within the department since its creation: Mass-spectrometric chemical analysis (Yo. M. Svoren’, B. E. Sakhno, Ye. S. Novikov, B. I Pisotskiy); Mass-spectrometric izotopical analysis (H. P. Mamchur, I. M. Naumko, I. P. Garanyuk); gas analysis (Z. I. Kovalyshyn); X-rays analysis (Z. Y. Yorysh, L. Yо. Skuls’ka); Electronic microscope analysis (N. O. Mykolaichuk); Chemical ultramicroscopic analysis (Z. M. Prytula, O. M. Fedusiv, I. M. Deneha, I. S. Hot’); Laser microspectral analysis (L. P. Druchok); Criometrical analysis (I. M. Zinchuk); Thermometrical analysis (in part, analysis of the inclusion in melt) (B. D. Zhovtulya) Geochemistry of endogenic carbon (O. D. Matviyenko), Polishing workshop (H. D. Zhuravchak), the Сentre of collective use of scientific instruments “Gas chromatography of fluids of geological objects”, and the Сentre of collective use of scientific instruments “Gas chromatography of fluids of geological objects” too (from 2011) (I. M. Naumko, I. M. Zinchuk, L. R. Red’ko, R. A. Bondar).
Thus, analysis of factual material available at the department of geochemistry of deep-seated fluids of the Institute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine gives grounds to confirm that problems of studies of running natural processes of minerogenesis in the upper mantle and the earth’s crust connected with defluidization of the deep horizons of lithosphere, mantle and crustal petrogenesis, formation of ore and non-ore deposits, postsedimentogenic mineral-forming in sedimentary series thst accompanies the formation of natural hydrocarbons, their migration and accumulation with forming deposits (field) both conventional and unconventional (coalbed methane, “shale” gas, gas of densed reservoirs and so on) sources, in most cases cannot be definitely solved without studies of fluid inclusions in minerals as solid bodies. Just these defects of crystalline structure are important genetic sources of information and at the same time those real witness of the process that appeared while forming the mineral parageneses of rock-ore complexes, oil and gas deposits, methane accumulations as gas of coalbeds, of “shale” gas, of gas of densed reservoirs and so on, as well as creation of geochemical and thermobaric aureoles of explored area.
This will promote developing of the complex of thermobaric and geochemical criteria of prediction, exploration and evaluation of deposits of useful minerals in metallogenic provinces, oil and gas-bearing areas and coal basins of the Ukraine.